International Academy of Sex Research

The International Academy of Sex Research (IASR) is a trade group whose objectives are "the promotion of high standards of research and scholarship in the field of sexual behavior by fostering communication and cooperation among scholars engaged in such research."

Lately, the organization has been infested with Clarke Institute people, including Kenneth J. Zucker as Secretary-Treasurer, who was replaced by J. Michael Bailey in 2001. Zucker moved on to be editor of the Archives of Sexual Behavior, the official journal of the International Academy of Sex Research. Managing Editor Laurel L. Johnson is also from the Clarke.

The IASR has plenty of members who don't buy into the Bailey-Blanchard-Lawernce worldview, but their numbers are dwindling as reputable people try to distance themselves from from this group of cronies. Famed researcher Milton Diamond resigned from the Archives of Sexual Behavior Editorial Board.

Bailey slammed after IASR lecture: told his book "is not science"

The IASR 2003 Conference was held at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana July 16-19, during the 50th anniversary of the Kinsey Institute.

Conference proceedings (PDF)

Conference procedings (Word)

Abstracts (PDF)

Abstracts (Word)

The abstracts for all the rest of the papers were available prior to the conference except Bailey's, which simply said "To be written." Later, the brief blurb below appeared five days after the conference:

IDENTITY POLITICS AS A HINDRANCE TO SCIENTIFIC TRUTH

Bailey, J. M., Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 USA (email: jm-baileyatnorthwestern.edu)

My book, The Man Who Would Be Queen, has provoked a furious reaction among a subgroup of transsexual women. I will discuss the science behind the transsexualism section of the book and detail the controversy that has occurred. I will also speculate about why these women are so angry. Identity politics is a serious threat to research on groups and individuals with important beliefs or self-presentational biases that conflict with scientific hypotheses.

One of my research assistants was able to decode the following electronic signature on the attachments above:

Details:
Program booklet.doc
Author = Kinsey Institute
Last Saved By = Mike Bailey
Company Name = Indiana University
Creation Date = 7/24/03, 5:28 pm
Revision Number = 2

Note: This document was intended for a conference July 16-19, 2003, but the web version was last edited on July 24. The web version is NOT the same document the conference attendees saw.

Abstracts2003.doc
Author = Kinsey Institute
Last Saved By = Mike Bailey
Company Name = Indiana University
Creation Date = 7/24/03, 5:32 pm
Revision Number = 8
_AuthorEmail = hamatindiana.edu
_AuthorEmailDisplayName = Ham, Sandra L.
AdHocReviewCycle = 1312873603
Original Title = Passionate Love and Sexual Desire: Historical and Cross-Cultural and Perspectives

Note: Sandra L. Ham is assistant to Kinsey Institute Director John Bancroft.

Lynn Conway received the following first-hand report from an IASR member in attendance

Obviously shaken from the recent events, Bailey offered a nearly-unintelligible 30 minute outline of Blanchard's theory of transsexualism. He then briefly mentioned the transgender "attack" on science. He also tried to get sympathy from the audience by showing pictures of his children. Bailey ended his talk abruptly by walking away from the podium, stating there was not time for the scheduled question-and-answer period. The audience, however, was not in agreement with him.

John Bancroft, director of The Kinsey Institute and one of the most respected sexologists in the world, was the first to cross-examine Bailey. His words (which I directly quote) were: "Michael, I would caution you against calling this book 'science' because I have read it ... and I can tell you it is NOT science."

Complete silence fell over the room. It was obvious that, indeed, a new era has finally dawned on sexual science and the study of transsexualism. While several people in the room at the meeting, including Ken Zucker, support Bailey and his "scientific" speculations, I can tell you that the vast majority of the scientific community does NOT.

Other Bailey "science" at IASR 2003

As part of their "transsexuals are liars" work, the IASR meeting also contained this piece of "science" from Bailey and Lawrence:

MEASURING SEXUAL AROUSAL IN POSTOPERATIVE MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUALS USING VAGINAL PHOTOPLETHYSMOGRAPHY

Lawrence, A. A., Latty, E. M., Chivers, M., & Bailey, J. M.; 1812 E. Madison St., Suite 102, Seattle, Washington 98122-2876 (alawrenceatmindspring.com); Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (email:
e-lattyatnwu.edu; jm-baileyatnwu.edu); Clinical Sexology Services, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario (email: Meredith_Chiversatcamh.net)

Human males typically display significantly different physiological responses to male vs. female sexual stimuli (category-specific sexual arousal), whereas human females typically do not. We used vaginal photoplethysmography to examine patterns of sexual arousal in 11 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals following sex reassignment surgery (SRS), and in 72 natal females. Subjective arousal was measured with a continuous response lever. Video clips depicting sexual activity between 2 males, 2 females, or 1 male and 1 female were used as erotic stimuli. All transsexual participants displayed category-specific sexual arousal. Five homosexual transsexual participants (attracted exclusively to males before sex reassignment) showed greater genital and subjective responses to male than to female stimuli, while 6 nonhomosexual transsexual participants showed the opposite pattern. Vaginal pulse amplitude was lower in transsexual participants than in natal females. The mean correlation between genital and subjective responses was high in nonhomosexual transsexuals, but was significantly lower in homosexual transsexuals and in natal females. One transsexual participant who reported a change in sexual orientation following sex reassignment displayed genital and subjective responses consistent with her pre-reassignment sexual orientation. We conclude that male-to-female transsexuals display male-typical category-specific sexual arousal following SRS, and that vaginal photoplethysmography is a promising methodology for studying patterns of sexual arousal in postoperative transsexuals.

Below are some other abstracts available on the IASR website. Notable comments are in blue.


IASR 2000 Conference Abstracts

HOMOSEXUAL MALE-TO-FEMALE TRANSSEXUALISM

Bailey, J. M., Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, 2029 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208-2710 (email: jm-baileyatnwu.edu)
 
Blanchard has distinguished two types of males who become females: autogynephilic and homosexual transsexuals. My talk will focus on the latter.

Although many find the term "homosexual male-to-female transsexuals confusing, I retain this term to emphasize, after Blanchard, that such individuals are a form of homosexual male. Specifically, they are very feminine gay men who choose to become women. The large majority of homosexual male-to-female transsexuals are unambiguously and strongly attracted to (heterosexual) men and have extensive sexual experience with men. This is perhaps the best way to distinguish homosexual and autogynephilic transsexuals, although it must be done carefully because some autogynephilics have homosexual fantasies. In the first part of my talk, I present interview/questionnaire data comparing heterosexual men, gay men, drag queens (who are intermediate between gay men and homosexual transsexuals), and homosexual transsexuals. The common notion that transsexuals are "women trapped in men's bodies" is partly true and partly false. In the second part of my talk I summarize less systematically investigated clinical impressions that should be studied further.

AUTOGYNEPHILIA AND THE TAXONOMY OF GENDER IDENTITY DISORDERS IN BIOLOGICAL MALES

Blanchard, R., Law and Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health--Clarke Division, 250 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8 Canada (email: Ray_Blanchardat camh.net)
 
By 1980, the clinical literature included a confusing array of classification schemes for gender identity disorders in biological males. One thing that most authorities did agree on is that gender identity disorders are phenomenologically and probably etiologically heterogeneous. The taxonomic question, therefore, wasnot whether there is more than one type of transsexualism in males, but rather, how many more than one type, and how these should be characterized. The research strategy that I used for this question was to start by distinguishing a larger number of groups and then reduce this to a smaller number by combining groups that seem to be merely superficially different variants. I started this research program by returning to the first taxonomic scheme ever proposed, namely, that advanced by Magnus Hirschfeld. He distinguished four main types of transvestites: heterosexual, asexual, bisexual, and homosexual. I therefore began my research by defining and labeling groups in the manner introduced by Hirschfeld, that is, according to their erotic interest in men, women, both, or neither. My empirical research showed that bisexual, asexual, and heterosexual transsexuals are similar to each other, and dissimilar to homosexual transsexuals, with regard to a history of transvestic fetishism, degree of recalled childhood femininity, age at clinical presentation, extent of interpersonal heterosexual experience, and a history of erotic arousal in association with the thought of being a woman. These findings indicate that there are only two fundamentally different types of transsexualism in males: homosexual and nonhomosexual. This points to the next question: What do the three nonhomosexual types have in common? I have suggested that the common characteristic is their paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women--an erotic orientation that I have labeled autogynephilia. The concept of autogynephilia is obviously related to the concept of (fetishistic) transvestism. Autogynephilia is much broader, however, in that it encompasses transvestism as well as erotic fantasies and behaviors in which the wearing of womens apparel is secondary or absent altogether. For example, the favorite masturbatory fantasy of some autogynephiles is simply the mental image of themselves with a nude female body--not doing anything in particular or having sex with another person, but simply existing. Thus, the concept of autogynephilia is useful, not only for explaining why heterosexual, asexual, and bisexual transsexuals are more similar to each other than any of them is to the homosexual type, but also for understanding the essential similarity of transvestism and the many other forms of sexual behavior in which paraphilic men enact their erotic fantasies of being women with symbols other than womens attire.

MEN TRAPPED IN MEN'S BODIES: AUTOGYNEPHILIC EROTICISM AS A MOTIVE FOR SEEKING SEX REASSIGNMENT

Lawrence, A. A., 6801-28th Ave. NE, Seattle, Washington 98115 (email: alawrenceat mindspring.com)

Clinicians have long been aware that some biologic males who seek sex reassignment for gender dysphoria have histories of sexual arousal with cross-dressing or cross-gender fantasy. Blanchard's concept of autogynephilia explains the relation between paraphilic arousal to feminization and the desire for sex reassignment in these individuals, but his formulation is not widely known or accepted.

I present the results of an ongoing survey, exploring the role of autogynephilic eroticism in transsexual women's decisions to seek sex reassignment. Participants were recruited through my Internet medical website for transsexual women. Their narratives were transmitted anonymously by a CGI e-mail program. I have thus far received over 150 responses, primarily from self-identified transsexual women.

My respondents report that:
- autogynephilic eroticism often influenced their decisions to seek sex reassignment;
- they sometimes doubted they were "really" transsexual because of their sexual feelings;
- they frequently imagined they were unique in experiencing autogynephilic arousal;
- they were usually unwilling to disclose their autogynephilic feelings to caregivers;
- autogynephilic imagery was sometimes obligatory for sexual performance;
- autogynephilic eroticism often continued after sex reassignment;
- cross-gender feelings sometimes preceded overt autogynephilic arousal;
- autogynephilic arousal sometimes coexisted with exclusive androphilia.

Excerpts from typical narratives will be presented. These narratives support Blanchard's conclusion that some male-to-female transsexuals seek sex reassignment in response to their paraphilic arousal to the act or fantasy of feminization.

Sex reassignment appears to be an effective treatment for gender dysphoria associated with autogynephilic eroticism and this makes sense in both psychopharmacological and existential terms. One existential challenge for individuals who experience paraphilic eroticism is to find a way to both express and control their unusual sexual desires. For autogynephiles, hormonal and surgical sex reassignment provides an elegant solution to this problem. Cross-sex hormone therapy lowers testosterone levels and thus moderates ego-dystonic paraphilic arousal, while hormonal and surgical treatments produce desired physical feminization. Sex reassignment can thus be seen as a form of sex therapy for the problems posed by autogynephilic eroticism.


IASR 2001 Conference Abstracts

LEFT-HANDEDNESS IS OVERREPRESENTED IN BOYS WITH GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER

Zucker, K. J., Beaulieu, N., Bradley, S. J., Grimshaw, G., and Wilcox, A., Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health--Clarke Division, 250 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8 Canada (email: Ken_Zuckeratcamh.net)
 
Recent research suggests that hand preference is associated with both sexual orientation and gender identity. In a meta-analysis of the sexual orientation studies, Lalumire, Blanchard, and Zucker (2000) found that both homosexual men and women were more likely to be non-consistently right-handed than heterosexual men and women, respectively. Several studies of adults with gender identity disorder have also reported an apparent elevation in left-handedness (or non-consistent right-handedness) compared to controls (Cohen-Kettenis et al., 1998; Herman-Jeglinska et al., 1997; Orlebeke et al., 1992; Slabbekoorn et al., 2000; Watson & Coren, 1992).

In the present study, handedness preference was assessed in 205 boys (M age, 6.8 yrs) referred clinically for concerns about their gender identity development. Handedness was defined as a preference for the right hand or the left hand on a unimanual behavior task (e.g., writing or completing of the Coding or Mazes subtests on a standardized IQ test). Two comparison groups were used. The first group consisted of boys and girls from three quasi-epidemiological studies (Calnan & Richardson, 1976; Eaton et al., 1996; Hardyck et al., 1975) (total N = 14,253 boys; N = 13,916 girls). The second comparison group consisted of a diagnostically heterogeneous group of 205 boys (M age, 8.6 yrs) referred clinically for reasons other than gender identity concerns.

The handedness data from the three quasi-epidemiological studies showed the expected sex difference, with more left-handed boys than girls (11.8% vs. 9.0%), P2(1) = 58.0, p < .00001. Compared to each of the three samples of boys, the percentage of clinical control boys who were left-handed (8.3%) did not differ significantly. The percentage of boys with gender identity disorder who were left-handed (19.5%) was significantly higher than each of the three samples of boys from the quasi-epidemiological studies (all ps < .002) and significantly higher than the clinical control boys, P2[1] = 9.9, p = .00169.

Because the probands differed significantly from the clinical controls on several demographic and behavioral measures, a logistic regression was performed in which these measures, along with group, were entered as predictor variables. The equation was built using forward stepwise regression. The only variable that entered the regression equation was group. Thus, the results were comparable to the chi-square analysis reported above.
Collapsed across the probands and the clinical controls, there were no significant differences between right-handers and left-handers for age at assessment, IQ, parent's marital status, ratings of behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist, and season of birth. For the boys with gender identity disorder, 10 additional variables were also examined for handedness effects: whether or not the proband met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder, birthweight, singleton vs. twin births, whether or not the proband was adopted, maternal age at the time of the proband's birth, ethnicity (Caucasian vs. non-Caucasian), number of older brothers, number of older sisters, number of older siblings, and parents' social class. None of these variables were related to the probands' handedness classification.

The data from the present study are, to date, the most direct evidence of a predisposing neurobiological influence on the origins of gender identity disorder in boys.

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN PEDOPHILES

Cantor, J. M., Christensen, B. K., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., and Blanchard, R., Clinical Sexology Service, Law and Mental Heath Programme, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health--Clarke Division, 4th Floor, 250 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada (James_Cantoratcamh.net)
 
Neurological impairment has long been suspected to exist in sexual offenders and to contribute to their behavior (e.g., Krafft-Ebing, 1886). However, researchers attempting to relate neuropsychological functioning to pedophilia have found inconsistent and even opposing conclusions. Such contradictions may have been caused by the use of small sample sizes and heterogeneous groups of offenders. This present investigation sought to identify the differences in brain functioning of sex offenders using larger samples and an analysis of homogeneous offense characteristics.
The Kurt Freud Phallometric Laboratory routinely assesses men who have been convicted of a sexual offense. A small number of additional men are self-referred for evaluation of other problematic sexual behavior. The patients undergo an assessment procedure that includes medical and legal file review, direct patient interview, psychophysiological (phallometric) assessment of erotic preference for age and gender, and a brief cognitive neuropsychological battery to ensure they have the capacity to perceive and process the stimuli used in the phallometric protocol and to profit from group psychotherapy. The accumulated data from these tests provide the opportunity to examine the cognitive functioning of that population.
Data analyses have been performed on the first 229 consecutive patients providing valid data. These analyses revealed: (1) that the intellectual and memory functioning of offenders against children are below those of offenders against adults, (2) that the association with intellectual capacity is strongest for the most age-inappropriate categories, (3) that there is a greater prevalence of non-right-handedness among men with pedophilic interest, both before and after controlling for IQ, and (4) that there is no difference in the relation between intellectual functioning and erotic attraction to female vs. to male children.

The cognitive test results confirm that intellectual functioning is negatively correlated with sexual interest in children. Because handedness, controlling for IQ, is also related to pedophilic interest, these are unlikely to be the result of less intelligent pedophiles being captured and incarcerated. It is more likely that a perturbation in brain development caused the decreased intellectual capacity, increased left-handedness, and pedophilia.

BIRTHWEIGHT IN FEMININE BOYS AND CLINICAL CONTROL BOYS AND GIRLS IN RELATION TO FRATERNAL BIRTH ORDER

Zucker, K. J., Blanchard, R., Cavacas, A., Allin, S., Bradley, S. J., Paterson, A. D., and Schachter, D. C., Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthClarke Division, 250 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada (Ken_Zuckeratcamh.net)
 
The purpose of this study was to confirm a previous finding that homosexual males with older brothers weigh significantly less at birth than do heterosexual males with older brothers. There were three groups of subjects. The first group comprised 250 boys who had been referred to a specialty clinic for children and adolescents with gender identity disorder because of their pervasive and persistent feminine behavior or their repeatedly stated wishes to be girls. Since marked cross-gender behavior in boys is a very strong predictor of adult homosexuality, these feminine boys can be regarded as a prehomosexual group. The second and third groups were 739 control boys and 261 control girls who had been referred to other psychological-psychiatric services within the same hospital program because of emotional or behavioral problems unrelated to gender identity disorder. Since the prevalence of homosexuality in the male population is only about 2% and the prevalence in the female population is even lower, these subjects may be regarded as preheterosexual groups. (An additional 10 subjects who were twins and 86 subjects who were < 2500 g were eliminated from the study, a common practice in research on full-term infants).
For the feminine boys, information on birthweight came from hospital records for 47 subjects, from maternal report for 71 subjects, and from both sources for 132 subjects. For the controls, information on birthweight came from maternal report only. For the feminine boys with both sources of birthweight information, the correlation between hospital records and maternal report was .94 (p < .001). This extremely high correlation indicates that maternal report of birthweight used in this study may be accepted as reasonably accurate. For subjects with both sources of information, the hospital records were used for statistical analysis.
The clinical control boys had a significantly higher birthweight than the clinical control girls, which confirms large scale epidemiological research on sex differences in birthweight. Regarding the relation between birthweight and fraternal birth order, the results showed that the feminine boys with two or more older brothers (N = 21) weighed substantially less at birth than did the control boys with two or more older brothers (N = 50). In contrast, the feminine and control boys with fewer than two older brothers did not differ in birthweight. Therefore, the results essentially confirmed the prior finding of Blanchard and Ellis (in press) that homosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than do heterosexual males with older brothers. We hypothesize that anti-male antibodies produced by human mothers in response to immunization by male fetuses could decrease the birthweight of subsequent male fetuses as well as increase their odds of homosexuality.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS, SOCIAL COMPETENCE, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER: A CROSS-NATIONAL, CROSS-CLINIC COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Zucker, K. J., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Owen, A., and Bradley, S. J., Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health--Clarke Division, 250 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada; Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolph Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Utrecht University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands (Ken_Zuckeratcamh.net)
 
The vast majority of research on children with gender identity disorder (GID) has been carried out on clinic-referred samples of children living in the United States and Canada. Although case reports or descriptive papers have documented the existence of GID in children from other countries, there has been little in the way of systematic empirical research from countries outside of North America that might be helpful in identifying the similarities and differences in the disorder, and its associated features, across cultural groups and nationalities. Since the late 1980s, a hospital-based gender identity clinic for children and adolescents has been established in Utrecht, The Netherlands, which affords the opportunity to carry out a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of GID. The purpose of the present study was to examine the similarities and differences of children with GID from two specialized gender identity clinics in two countriesCanada and The Netherlandswith regard to three domains: demographic variables, social competence, and behavior problems.
We compared 358 children referred consecutively to, and then assessed in, the Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, which is housed within the Child Psychiatry Program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthClarke Division (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) with 130 children referred consecutively to, and then assessed in, the Gender Clinic ("Gender Spreekuur"), which is housed within the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands).
Regarding demographics, we examined five variables: (1) age at assessment; (2) sex; (3) IQ; (4) parents' social class; and (5) parents' marital status. The Toronto clinic patients were, on average, significantly younger than the Utrecht clinic patients at the time of assessment (by about a year). Boys were also significantly younger than girls across both clinics. There was a particularly striking difference in the age at referral between the ages of 3-5 years (22.6% vs. 2.3% of Toronto and Utrecht patients, respectively). The Toronto clinic had a higher percentage of male referrals than did the Utrecht clinic. The Toronto clinic patients were also significantly more intelligent (on average, by about 5 IQ points). More Utrecht clinic patients lived in two-parent families than Toronto clinic patients, but there was no difference in parents' social class.
The two clinic patients were also compared with regard to social competence and behavior problems, as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a standardized parent-report questionnaire. Regarding social competence, both clinic groups had lower mean social competence scores than the non-referred sample in the standardization study; however, the Utrecht patients had significantly lower social competence than the Toronto patients for some measures. Regarding behavior problems, both clinic groups had higher mean scores than the non-referred sample in the standardization study. Overall, the two clinic groups were quite similar with regard to degree of behavior problems. On a CBCL-derived scale of poor peer relations, there was only a main effect for sex: boys had poorer peerrelations than girls.
Regarding the DSM diagnosis of GID, a significantly greater percentage of Utrecht patients met the complete criteria than did the Toronto patients, which was consistent with more extreme CBCL mean ratings for two gender-specific items for the Utrecht sample than for the Toronto sample.
Multiple regression analyses indicated that the strongest predictor of general behavior problems was the composite scale of poor peer relations.
The results identified both similarities and differences in demographics and behavioral problems in children with GID from two countries (Canada and The Netherlands). Although the Utrecht sample appeared, on average, to be more extreme with regard to GID, they were referred at a later age than the Toronto sample (which could not be attributed to financial reasons, since both countries have universal health insurance). The two samples were generally comparable with regard to degree of general behavioral problems and parent perceptions of poor peer relations. Thus, there was some evidence for cross-national commonalities with regard to associated features of GID in children.


IASR 2002 Conference Abstracts

Male sexual arousal is target specific.  Female sexual arousal is bisexual.

Chivers, M. L., Rieger, G. Latty, E., & Bailey, J. M. Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL  60208
(m-chiversatnorthwestern.edu)
 
Sexual arousal is target-specific in men. Heterosexual men are more aroused by female than male sexual stimuli and homosexual men show the opposite pattern. It is unknown if
women show target-specific sexual arousal patterns.  This presentation addresses the following questions: (1) Is female sexual arousal target specific?  (2) Are differences in women’s and men’s sexual arousal patterns due to measurement artifacts?  (3) If sex of target is not a determining factor in female genital response, what is it that women are responding to?

The recalled childhood gender identity scale: Psychometric properties

Zucker, K.J., and Mitchell, J.N., Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
(Ken_Zuckeratcamh.net)
 
We developed a 23-item recall questionnaire for adults that attempted to include core behavioral features of both gender identity and gender role behavior, as well as behavioral features pertaining to identification with parents, during childhood. A number of the items were expected to show normative sex differences (e.g., in the domains of sex-of-playmate preferences, toy preferences, dress-up play, roles in fantasy play, etc.). Other items were included that indexed how a person recalled feeling about being a boy or a girl, along with the desire to be of the other sex. Evidence for the normative sex differences were documented in a preliminary report (Mitchell & Zucker, 1991).
 
A principal axis factor analysis on 1098 subjects identified two factors. One factor pertained to gender identity/role; the other factor pertained to relative identification with the same-sex vs. the opposite-sex parent. Factor 1 accounted for 32.8% of the variance. Factor 2 accounted for 7.5% of the variance. Discriminant validity of the questionnaire was demonstrated by comparing subgroups from the overall sample (e.g., women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia vs. unaffected sisters/cousins; homosexual vs. heterosexual men; homosexual vs. heterosexual women).
 
The Recalled Childhood Gender Identity Scale appears to have excellent psychometric properties. It includes a wide range of behaviors that are often assumed to index the constructs of masculinity and femininity, as well as that of gender identity. It is a questionnaire that can be completed in a relatively short period of time. It is hoped that it will be a useful addition to the literature with regard to the measurement of psychosexual differentiation, as recalled by adults.

International Academy of Sex Research Membership List

Elizabeth Adkins Regan
Cornell University
218 Uris Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca NY 14853-7601
tel: 607-255-6304
fax: 607-255-8433
er12atcornelldotedu

Elizabeth Rice Allgeier
Bowling Green State University
351 Psychology
(419) 372-2010
elizaraatwcnetdotorg

Michael Bailey
Northwestern University

John Bancroft
Director, Kinsey Institute
812/855-7686
fax: 812/855-8277
jbancrofatindianadotedu

David Barlow
Boston University
Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders
648 Beacon Street
Sixth Floor
Boston, MA 02215
Office Phone: (617) 353-9610
Fax: (617) 353-9609
dhbarlowatbudotedu

Michael Baum
Boston University
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Gayle Beck, Ph.D
State University of New York at Albany
Office: 230 Park Halll
(716) 645-3650 ext.230
jgbeckatacsu.buffalo.edu

Peter Bentler
UCLA psych

Walter O. Bockting, Ph.D.
Coordinator
University of Minnesota Program in Human Sexuality
bockt001atumn.edu

Hartmut Bosinski
hagbosiatsexmed.uni-kiel.de

David Buss
University of Texas, Austin
dbussatpsy.utexas.edu

Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Ph.D.
Research Scientist and Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology
Columbia University
TEL: (212) 543-5261
FAX: (212) 543-6003
ac72atcolumbia.edu

Michael Carey
SUNY
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University of Texas
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Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
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Aaron H. Devor
Sociology Department
University of Victoria
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Canada V8W 3P5
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E-mail: ahdevoratuvic.ca
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Michael Domjan
University of Texas, Austin
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David Edwards, Ph.D.
Emory University
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Emory University
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Anke A. Ehrhardt, Ph.D.
Columbia U.
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Brown University
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lsu.edu psychology

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Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
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NIH
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Joe Herbert M.A., B.Sc., M.B., B.Chir., Ph.D.
Gonville & Caius College
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Email: jh24atcam.ac.uk

Gilbert Herdt

Dr. Elaine Hull
University of Buffalo
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emhullatbuffalo.edu

Janet Hyde
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Phone: 262.9522 or 265.5414
Email: jshydeatfacstaff.wisc.edu
Office: 418 Psychology

Erick Janssen
Indiana U.
The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction
Phone: 812-855-3309
Address: Morrison Hall 313 Bloomington, IN 47405
Email: ejanssenatindiana.edu

Robert Kertzner, M.D.
Columbia U.
Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry
TEL: (212) 543-5439
FAX: (212) 543-6003
rmk3atcolumbia.edu

Ales Kolarsky, PhD
Suchardova 4
Praha 6, 160 00
Czech Republic
phone: (02)2431-3784 (evening)
email: alesatkolarsky.com

Barry R. Komisaruk, Ph.D
Rutgers University
Rutgers University, Psychology Dept.
101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102
Smith Hall Room
phone: (973) 353-5440 x5853
fax: (973) 353-1171
email: brkatandromeda.rutgers.edu

Kontula, Osmo
Population Research Institute, Finland
Tel.int. +358 9 2280 5123
e-mail: osmo.kontulaatvaestoliitto.fi

Edward O. Laumann
University of Chicago
Kelly 114 773-702-8691
e-laumannatuchicago.edu

Sandra Leiblum
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (umdnj.edu)

Harold Leitenberg

Lynne A. Bond
University of Vermont
Professor of Psychology
Phone: (802) 656-1341
Fax: (802) 656-8783
email: lynne.bondatuvm.edu

Dr. Richard Lippa
(Note: has developed an assay/scale of masculinity vs. femininity)
Professor of Psychology
California State University, Fullerton
Fullerton, Ca. 92834-6846
(714) 278-3654
rlippaatfullerton.edu

Neil Malamuth
Communication Studies
334 Kinsey Hall, UCLA
Los Angeles, California, 90095-1538
Office: Bunche 9246
Email: nmalamutatucla.edu
phone: (310) 206-8868
fax: (310) 206-8901

MARTHA MCCLINTOCK
University of Chicago
Email address: mkm1atccp.uchicago.edu

Dennis McFadden
University of Texas, Austin
Email: mcfaddenatpsy.utexas.edu
Phone: 471-4324 Lab: 471-1704
Office: SEA 4.226 Lab: SEA 4.130(A-B)

Linda Mealey, Ph.D.
Psychology Department
College of St. Benedict
St. Joseph, MN 56374 USA
LMEALEYatCSBSJU.EDU

Dr. Cindy M. Meston
The University of Texas at Austin
(512) 232-4805

Heino Meyer-Bahlburg,
Professor of Clinical Psychology (in Psychiatry)
Columbia U.
TEL: (212) 543-5299
FAX: (212) 543-5966
meyerbatchild.cpmc.

Lucia F. O’Sullivan, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology
Columbia University.

Vernon L. Quinsey
Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario
Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry
Department of Psychology,
Queen's University at Kingston
Kingston, Ontario
K7L 3N6
(613) 533-6538
(613) 533-2499
Email: quinseyatpsyc.queensu.ca

Ira L.Reiss
U. of Minnesota
Email: reiss001atatlas.socsci.umn.edu

Emilie Rissman

Raymond Rosen, PhD
Professor of Psychiatry
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
University Behavioral Healthcare Center
Piscataway, New Jersey

Dr. David Sandberg
University of Buffalo
Office: Children's Hospital of Buffalo
Phone: (716) 878-7645
dsandberatbuffalo.edu

Stephanie Sanders
The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction
Morrison Hall 313
Indiana University
Bloomington, IN 47405
Phone: (812) 855-7686
Email: sandersatindiana.edu

Ritch C. Savin-Williams
Cornell University
G39 Martha Van Rensselaer Hall
Phone: (607) 255-6111
Fax: (607) 255-9856
rcs15atcornell.edu

Pepper Schartz
U. of Washington
Box 353340
Department of Sociology
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
Fax (206) 543-2516
Email couplesatu.washington.edu

Joseph Stokes

Donald S. Strassberg, Ph. D., ABPP
Department of Psychology,
University of Utah,
380 South 1530 East, Room 502,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 -0251
Office: 1327 Social And Behavioral Science Building
Office Phone: (801) 581-7559
E-mail: donald.strassbergatpsych.utah.edu
Fax: (801) 581-5841

Deborah Tolman
Wellesley College

John Townsend
Syracuse Univ.
Office: 525 Eggers Hall
Phone: 443-4851
E-mail: jtownsendatmaxwell.syr.edu
jmtsu44ataol.com

Jan Trost
Uppsala universitet
Sociologiska institutionen
Box 821
SE-751 08 Uppsala
Sweden
Jan.Trostatsoc.uu.se

Paul L.Vasey
Assistant Professor
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
The University of Lethbridge
4401 University Drive
Lethbridge,
AB Canada
T1K 3M4
Office: D852
Phone: (403) 329-2407
Fax: (403) 329-2555
Email: paul.vaseyatuleth.ca

Kim Wallen, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology
Emory University
532 N. Kilgo Circle
Atlanta, GA 30322
Phone: (404) 727-4125
Fax: (404) 727-0372
Email: kimatemory.edu

Patricia Weerakoon
(web cchs.usyd.edu.au)

Martin Weinberg
Indiana U.

Beverly Whipple, PhD, RN, FAAN
Rutgers
College of Nursing
Ackerson Hall, Room 102
180 University Avenue
Newark, NJ 07102-1897
Fax: (973) 353-1277
E-Mail: whippleatnightingale.rutgers.edu

Frederick L. Whitam
Arizona State U.
E-mail:whitamatimap1.asu.edu

Amy Wisniewski
(Johns Hopkins??)

William L. Yarber
Adjunct Professor of Gender Studies
Research Fellow, The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction.
HPER 142
(812) 855-7974
Email: yarberatindiana.edu)

Reently, several previously objective scientific journals have been taken over by aggressive schools of thought. This includes the Archive of Sexual Behavior and Behavior Genetics.

Archives of Sexual Behavior
The Official Publication of the International Academy of Sex Research
Editorial Board

Editor:
Kenneth J. Zucker
Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health - Clarke Div., Toronto, ON, Canada

Managing Editor:
Laurel L. Johnson
Child and Adolescent Gender Identity Clinic, Child Psychiatry Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health - Clarke Div., Toronto, ON, Canada

Founding Editor (1971–2001): Richard Green, Gender Identity Clinic, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK

Editorial Board:

Gerianne M. Alexander, Texas A & M University, College Station ;

J. Michael Bailey, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL ;

Michael J. Baum, Boston University, MA ;Peter M. Bentler, University of California at Los Angeles ;

Yitzchak M. Binik, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada ;

Ray Blanchard, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada ;

Anthony F. Bogaert, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada ;

Lori A. Brotto, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle ;

E. Sandra Byers, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada ;

James M. Cantor, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada ;

Michael P. Carey, Syracuse University, NY ;

Meredith L. Chivers, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada ;

Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ;

Aaron H. Devor, University of Victoria, BC, Canada ;

Lisa M. Diamond, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ;

Alan F. Dixson, Zoological Society of San Diego, CA ;

Jennifer I. Downey, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York ;

Michael Dunne, Queensland University of Technology, Australia ;

Richard C. Friedman, Cornell University Medical College, New York ;

Alain J. Giami, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France ;

Brian A. Gladue, University of Cincinnati, OH ;

Cynthia A.M. Graham, Indiana University, Bloomington ;

Julia R. Heiman, University of Washington, Seattle ;

Melissa Hines, City University, London, UK ;

Elaine M. Hull, The University at Buffalo, State University of New York ;

Erick Janssen, Indiana University, Bloomington ;

Ellen Laan, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands ;

Martin L. Lalumière, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada ;

Stephen B. Levine, Center for Marital and Sexual Health, Beachwood, OH ;

Richard A. Lippa, California State University, Fullerton ;

Marta Meana, University of Nevada, Las Vegas ;

Cindy M. Meston, University of Texas at Austin ;

Heino F.L. Meyer-Bahlburg, New York State Psychiatric Institute ;

Lin S. Myers, California State University - Stanislaus, Turlock ;

Lucia F. O'Sullivan, New York State Psychiatric Institute ;

Richard G. Parker, Columbia University, New York ;

Friedemann Pfäfflin, University of Ulm, Germany ;

Raymond C. Rosen, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ ;

David L. Rowland, Valparaiso University, IN ;

Paula C. Rodriguez Rust, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY ;

Geoff Sanders, London Metropolitan University, UK ;

Theo G.M. Sandfort, New York State Psychiatric Institute ;

Ritch C. Savin-Williams, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY ;

Michael C. Seto, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada ;

Donald S. Strassberg, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ;

Aleksandar Stulhofer, University of Zagreb, Croatia ;

Leonore Tiefer, New York University School of Medicine ;

John M. Townsend, Syracuse University, NY ;

Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Rutgers Nisso Groep, Utrecht, The Netherlands ;

Kim Wallen, Emory University, Atlanta, GA ;

Martin S. Weinberg, Indiana University, Bloomington


Row as researcher claims gays can be 'straightened'
Polly Curtis
Thursday October 2, 2003

The study of Americans who had undergone so-called "reparative therapy" claimed that 78% of men and 95% of wome reported a change to predominantly or completely heterosexual behaviour.
The study's author, Professor Robert Sptizer, a psychiatrist at Columbia University, claimed it was the first study of its type. The Times Higher Education Supplement quoted him as saying: "It questions the politically correct view that once you're gay that's it and suggests that there is more flexibility than many people have assumed."
Professor Spitzer, who was central to the 1973 decision by the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from its list of mental disorders insists he is not anti-gay. But the study's methods have encountered heavy criticism.
The paper was rejected by the prestigious American Journal of Psychiatry, but accepted by the Archives of Sexual Behaviour, which is also well respected in academic circles. One member of the International Academy of Sex Research, which supports the journal, resigned in protest.